Sunday, December 18, 2011

Trinity and Beyond

July 16, 1945 was when the first bomb was sent off.  In Mexico, 100 pounds of TnT was used to scale an explosion of an atomic bomb.  In 1938 Hitler invaded Austria and shortly after German scientists discovered fission in the Uranium nucleus to help develop the atomic bomb.  On December 2nd, Enrico Fermi made a self-sustaining chain-reacting pile that he tried to use in a bomb.  The first bomb was made at Los Alamos, New Mexico.  Their were two main types at the start, the Uranium gun weapon or The Little Boy bomb and The Fat Man or the Implosion Bomb.  The Implosion bomb was made out of Plutonium.  It had an initiator in the middle surrounded by a sphere of highly explosive lenses.  The lenses forced the Plutonium into itself and caused 10 million pounds of pressure and  it could temporarily blind people within 10 miles.  The Little Boy bomb was dropped onto Hiroshima and the Fat Man bomb was dropped onto on Nagasaki.  70,000 people were killed or missing and 60,000 out of 90,000 buildings were destroyed.  42,000 people were killed and 40,000 were injured.  39 percent of the buildings at Nagasaki were demolished.  A research development was made in Los Alamos.  The US began Operation Sandstone.  They were developing an atomic bomb with the same size,but twice the blast with the same amount of Plutonium in it.  They kept the bombs on 200ft steel towers.  On March 4th and 5th, scientists made the Implosion bomb slimmer and lighter.  Next, on August 29, 1949, the Russian's test an atomic bomb 5 years earlier than expected.  They discovered that a US scientist passed the trinity design to the Russians.  Next came Operation Ranger, they tested out 5 new types of atomic bombs 60 miles north of las vegas.  In Operation Greenhouse, Ranger Able was the first bomb dropped into the US since the Trinity bomb exploded.  Test Item had Trillium in the center used as a booster.  Next, Operation Ivy, the Hydrogen bomb or wet bomb that weighed 62 tons.  This couldn't be delivered and it started the Thermonuclear era.  Ivy Mike had a small yield and was detonated low to the ground shot out of a cannon had a wind that'd sweep through as a precursor.  It caused more damage than a 28 kiloton bomb detonated 28k feet above the ground.  Castle Bravo was the largest thermonuclear blast.  In Operation Redwing, we tested high wield bombs.  During this time, the russians managed to start delivering hydrogen bombs by planes.  They did 24 tests for Operation Plumbob and kept them 1500 feet above ground.  On the 21st test, they put the bomb 790ft below the ground and it set a shockwave through the ground and raised dirt.  Operation Hardtack tested 35 bombs.  Tique, detonated 50 miles high, caused an EMP.  This was the beginnings of atmospheric tests.  The Russians secretly developed a "Monster Bomb."  This was a 57 megaton hydrogen bomb.  Between the years 1945 and 1962, 331 tests were detonated in the atmosphere.

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